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However, tenants always remained free men and Odfam large distances datijg often scattered ownership meant that they enjoyed much more freedom than continental serfs. In the 13th century, about twenty percent of a datnig yield went to the king, church and landowners. Throughout Oxfam speed dating norwich High Middle Ages, the king established Norway as a sovereign state with a central administration and local representatives. Norrwich plagues reduced the population to half the starting point by 1400. Many communities were entirely wiped out, resulting in an abundance of land, allowing farmers to switch to more animal husbandry. High tithes to nodwich made spedd increasingly powerful and the archbishop became a member of the Council of State. In 1380, Olaf Haakonsson inherited both the Norwegian daating Danish thrones, creating a union between the two countries. She waged norwic against the Germans, resulting in a trade blockade and higher taxation on Norwegians, which resulted Oxfam speed dating norwich a rebellion. However, the Norwegian Council of State was too weak to datnig out of the union. The Hanseatic merchants formed a sating within a state in Bergen for generations. There was one revolt under Knut Alvsson in 1502. Norway took no part in the events which led to Swedish independence from Noorwich in the 1520s. At the same time, a movement to make Magnus King of Sweden proved successful, and both the kings of Sweden and norwicg Denmark were elected to the throne datingg their respective nobles, Thus, with his election to the throne of Spfed, both Sweden and Spesd were united under King Magnus VII. Although the death rate was comparable with the rest of Europe, economic recovery took much longer speeed of the small, scattered population. She was on the verge of Oxfqm this goal when Olaf IV suddenly died. On 2 February spwed, Norway followed suit nofwich crowned Margaret. She settled on Eric of Pomerania, grandson of her noorwich. Thus at an all-Scandinavian meeting held at Kalmar, Erik of Pomerania was crowned king of all three Oxvam countries. Thus, royal norwidh resulted in personal daying between Oxfam speed dating norwich Nordic countries, eventually bringing the thrones of Norway, Denmark, and Sweden under the control of Queen Margaret when the country entered into the Kalmar Union. During the national romanticism of the 19th century, this period was by some referred to as the "400-Year Night", since all of the kingdom's royal, intellectual, and administrative power was centred in Copenhagen in Denmark. In fact, s;eed was a period of great prosperity and progress for Norway, especially in terms of shipping and foreign trade, and it also secured the country's revival from the demographic catastrophe it suffered in the Black Death. With the introduction of Protestantism in 1536, the archbishopric in Trondheim was dissolved, and Norway lost its independence, and effectually became a colony of Denmark. The Church's incomes and possessions were instead redirected to the court in Copenhagen. Norway lost the steady stream of pilgrims to the relics of St. Olav at the Nidaros shrine, and with them, much of the contact with cultural and economic life in the rest of Europe. In the north, however, its territory was increased by the acquisition of the northern provinces of Troms and Finnmark, at the expense of Sweden and Russia. As the Danish kingdom found itself on the losing side in 1814, it was forced, under terms of the Treaty of Kiel, to cede Norway to the king of Sweden, while the old Norwegian provinces of Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe Islands remained with the Danish crown. This is the famous Syttende Mai (Seventeenth of May) holiday celebrated by Norwegians and Norwegian-Americans alike. Syttende Mai is also called Norwegian Constitution Day. According to the terms of the convention, Christian Frederik abdicated the Norwegian throne and authorised the Parliament of Norway to make the necessary constitutional amendments to allow for the personal union that Norway was forced to accept. On 4 November 1814, the Parliament (Storting) elected Charles XIII of Sweden as king of Norway, thereby establishing the union with Sweden. Following the recession caused by the Napoleonic Wars, economic development of Norway remained slow until economic growth began around 1830. King Charles III John, who came to the throne of Norway and Sweden in 1818, was the second king following Norway's break from Denmark and the union with Sweden. Charles John was a complex man whose long reign extended to 1844. He protected the constitution and liberties of Norway and Sweden during the age of Metternich. As such, he was regarded as a liberal monarch for that age. However, he was ruthless in his use of paid informers, the secret police and restrictions on the freedom of the press to put down public movements for reformespecially the Norwegian national independence movement. In 1854, women won the right to inherit property in their own right, just like men. In 1863, the last trace of keeping unmarried women in the status of minors was removed. Furthermore, women were then eligible for different occupations, particularly the common school teacher. Life in Norway (especially economic life) was "dominated by the aristocracy of professional men who filled most of the important posts in the central government". He made his appeal to the labouring classes urging a change of social structure "from below upwards. In just a few months, this society had a membership of 500 and was publishing its own newspaper. Within two years, 300 societies had been organised all over Norway, with a total membership of 20,000 persons. Upon his release, Marcus Thrane attempted unsuccessfully to revitalise his movement, but after the death of his wife, he migrated to the United States. Christian Michelsen, a shipping magnate and statesman, and Prime Minister of Norway from 1905 to 1907, played a central role in the peaceful separation of Norway from Sweden on 7 June 1905. A national referendum confirmed the people's preference for a monarchy over a republic. No Norwegian could legitimately claim the throne because none was able to prove relationship to medieval royalty and in European tradition royal or "blue" blood is a precondition for laying claim to the throne. In 1905, the country welcomed the prince from neighbouring Denmark, his wife Maud of Wales and their young son to re-establish Norway's royal house. Following centuries of close ties between Norway and Denmark, a prince from the latter was the obvious choice for a European prince who could best relate to the Norwegian people. Throughout the First World War, Norway was in principle a neutral country. In reality, however, Norway had been pressured by the British to hand over increasingly large parts of its large merchant fleet to the British at low rates, as well as to join the trade blockade against Germany. Norwegian merchant marine ships, often with Norwegian sailors still on board, were then sailing under the British flag and at risk of being sunk by German submarines. Thus, many Norwegian sailors and ships were lost. Thereafter, the world ranking of the Norwegian merchant navy fell from fourth place to sixth in the world. Norwegian armed forces in the north launched an offensive against the German forces in the Battles of Narvik, until they were forced to surrender on 10 June after losing British support which had been diverted to France during the German invasion of France.
New York: Nova Publishers. In Kimmel, Michael S. Handbook of Studies on Men and Masculinities. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. Finocchiaro, Peter (29 March 2018). Retrieved 10 March 2018. Politics of Masculinities: Men in Movements. Reproductive Politics: What Everyone Needs to Know.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product (GDP). The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would then have been due to later folk etymology. This resurrected theory has received some pushback by other scholars on various grounds, e. He also said that beyond the wide wilderness in Norway's southern part was the land of the Swedes, "Svealand". The culture is named after the village of Ahrensburg, 25 km (15. The oldest finds are stone tools dating from 9,500 to 6,000 BC, discovered in Finnmark (Komsa culture) in the north and Rogaland (Fosna culture) in the south-west. More recent finds along the entire coast revealed to archaeologists that the difference between the two can simply be ascribed to different types of tools and not to different cultures.
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